Wednesday, July 23, 2014

A new Black Swallowtail Butterfly meets the world

A few minutes ago, I walked out into the field behind our office to search for Monarch Butterflies.  I did find two adult Monarchs - I have already seen more Monarchs in the past two weeks than I did all of 2013.  Both of the Monarchs that I saw were very skittish and would not sit still long enough for a good photograph.

On the way back to the office I found something else...

A Black Swallowtail Butterfly - if you look very closely you can see its chrysalis

That dark shape near the center of the photo is a Black Swallowtail Butterfly (Papilio polyxenes).  As I walked closer, I noticed that the abdomen of this butterfly appeared swollen.  This means that it has just emerged (eclosed) from its chrysalis and is still pumping fluids from its abdomen into its wings to fully expand them.


This newly eclosed Black Swallowtail is busy pumping fluids from its abdomen into its wings.

If you find a butterfly that is doing this look nearby and you should find the now empty chrysalis.


Black Swallowtail chrysalis (empty)

In this next photo you can see the chrysalis near the top of the plant and the butterfly lower down, still pumping fluids into its wings.


Black Swallowtail Butterfly (below) and chrysalis (above) on Spotted Knapweed

Finally, here is one more photo of the Black Swallowtail as it continues to pump fluids from its abdomen to its wings.  Once the wings are fully expanded, the butterfly will need to allow them to harden before it is able to fly.


Black Swallowtail Butterfly - continuing to pump fluids from its swollen abdomen to expand its wings

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Wildflowers of 2014 - #182 through #189

On Thursday (17 July 2014) I headed to Mill Pond Park to look for wildflowers.  In about 90 minutes of searching I was able to find eight new species, bring the total for the year to 189 species.  Several of the species were first time finds for me.

Wildflowers of 2014 - #182 Common Evening-primrose (Oenothera biennis)

The first flower of the day was Common Evening-primrose (Oenothera biennis).  The flowers of Evening-primroses open at night to attract moths.  The flowers then close up during the course of the day.  Common Evening-primrose flowers are yellow, have four petals, and measure 1 to 2 inches across.  They grow in spikes at the ends of the plant.

Common Evening-primrose surrounded by White Sweet Clover


Common Evening-primrose plants may be up to six feet tall.  As their scientific name implies they are a biennial - flowering in their second year.  The plant's leaves are oval or oblong-shaped and measure 4 to 8 inches long.

Common Evening-primrose -  a closer view of the flowers and leaves

Common Evening-primrose usually prefers dry sandy soils found along roadsides, shorelines, forest edges, and fields.  It has a very wide species distribution and can be found from the Atlantic to the Pacific coasts with the exception of Idaho, Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, and Arizona.

Wildflowers of 2014 - #183 Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea stoebe)

The next flower is considered a noxious weed or an invasive species by many states.  Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) is a native of Europe that was introduced to the Pacific Northwest in the late 1800s.  It is now found in 46 states and seven Canadian provinces/territories.  Spotted Knapweed spreads aggressively by producing large numbers of seeds that remain viable in the soil for several years.  Once established it quickly outcompetes native species.

Spotted Knapweed bloom

Spotted Knapweed plants may grow up to five feet tall.   The purple flowers resemble those of thistles, but the plant can be distinguished from thistles by its complete lack of thorns.  The leaves and stems of Spotted Knapweed are grey-green in color.  The leaves are deeply lobed.

Wildflowers of 2014 - #184 Common Water Horehound (Lycopus americanus)

The third flower of the day is one that I have not found before - Common Water Horehound (Lycopus americanus).  This native member of the Mint family (Lamiaceae) grows in wet soils along shorelines and streams, along the edges of marshes and swamps, and in other areas of low ground.  Also known as American Bugleweed, this species is found across most of North America south of the Canadian Arctic.

Common Water Horehound (Lycopus americanus)

Common Water Horehound may reach heights of heights of up to 36 inches.  It has leaves arranged in opposite pairs.  The leaves are 1 3/4 to 3 inches long and have coarsely toothed margins.  The plant's small white flowers grow in a whorl at the leaf axils.

Common Water Horehound - note whorls of white flowers in leaf axils and coarsely toothed leaves

Wildflowers of 2014 - #185 Self-heal (Prunella vulgaris)

The next flower is another native member of the Mint family.  Self-heal (Prunella vulgaris), which is also known as Heal-all, is found across the Northern Hemisphere in both North America and Eurasia. Unlike the previous species, this species has flowers that grow in a spike above the leaves.  The flowers may be purple, violet-blue, or even white.  Plants grow up to 20 inches tall.

Seld-heal or Heal-all

Wildflowers of 2014 - #186 Northern Water Plantain (Alisma triviale)

Northern Water Plantain (Alisma triviale) is an emergent wetland species.  It grows in shallow water in streams, ponds, lakes, ditches, marshes, etc.  It can be found throughout Michigan.  Overall it has a range that covers most of North America north and west of a line from Virginia to Texas.

Northern Water Plantain - note basal leaves and widely branching flower panicle

Northern Water Plantain plants have a basal cluster of oval shaped leaves on long stalks.  A flower stalk grows up from the central cluster.  This single stalk then branches many times forming a structure called a panicle.  The plants flowers grow on the tips of the many small branches of the panicle.  Although the whole flowering panicle may be three feet (or more) tall, the individual flowers are small, measuring 1/4 - 3/8 inch across. 

Northern Water Plantain - a closer view of an individual flower

The closely related Southern Water Plantain (A. subcordatum) has even smaller flowers that measure only 1/8 - 1/4 inch across.  To distinguish between the two species compare the length of the flowers petals to its sepals.  If the petals are longer than the sepals it is A. triviale, if they are the same length or shorter the plant is A. subcordatum.

Wildflowers of 2014 - #187 Willow-herb (Epilobium ciliatum)

Like Common Water Horehound, Willow-herb (Epilobium ciliatum) is another new species for me.  I found this plant growing in the floodplain area at Mill Pond Park.  This species is typically found in wet soils.  This species can be found across North America with the exception of seven states in the Southeast and the Canadian territory of Nunavut.

Willow-herb (Epilobium ciliatum)

Epilobium species can be difficult to identify to the species level.  I based my identification of this plant on its height (greater than 3 feet), the size of its flower, size of leaves, toothed margins of its leaves, and locations of known populations in Michigan.  However, this species is known to hybridize with Cinnamon Willow-herb (E. coloratum) and the plants in this small colony may very well be hybrids.

Willow-herb - note flower with four notched petals and toothed leaves

Wildflowers of 2014 - #188 Ditch Stonecrop (Penthorum sedoides)

I found the next plant growing several feet away from the Willow-herb.  Ditch Stonecrop (Penthorum sedoides) is another wetland species, growing on the borders of streams and ponds, in marshes, and in other muddy habitats. This plant is found across eastern North America with several small, presumably introduced populations in the Pacific Northwest.

Ditch Stonecrop (Penthorum sedoides)

Ditch Stonecrop typically grows to a height of 1 to 2 feet.  It has narrow oval shaped leaves that are 2-4 inches long.  The leaves are arranged alternately on the stem.  The plant's flowers grow on a raceme - this means that individual flowers all grow on short stalks off an elongated stem with flowers growing from the base of the stem blooming before those at the top.  The racemes may be 1-3 inches long, but individual flowers only measure about 1/4 inch across.  The flowers are cream colored, with red fruit growing after pollination.

Ditch Stonecrop - note small cream-colored flowers (often lacking petals)

Wildflowers of 2014 - #189 Common Burdock (Arctium minus)

The final flower of the day was Common Burdock (Arctium minus).  This introduced species is a common weed of fields, roadsides, pastures, and other disturbed spaces.  Common Burdock (also known as Lesser Burdock) is native to Europe, but can now be found across most of North America with the exception of Alaska and the Canadian Arctic.

A large Common Burdock - note large basal leaves and purple flowers

Common Burdock plants can be identified by their large leaves (up to 2 feet long and 1.5 feet wide), purple flowers, and round burs.  The burs encase the plant's seeds and are used to disperse the seeds.  Anyone who has ever brushed up against one of these plants is familiar with how the hooked burs cling to clothing (or animal fur or feathers) and pull off of the parent plant.  Common Burdock plants may grow from 3 to 6 feet tall.

Common Burdock - a closer view of the flowers and burs

Monday, July 21, 2014

One Small Step...



Forty-five years ago on 20 July 1969 at at 9:56:15 PM EST, mankind stepped on the moon for the first time when astronaut Neil Armstrong stepped down from the Lunar Module "Eagle" onto the a flat volcanic plain known as the Mare Tranquillitatus or "Sea of Tranquility".  Nineteen minutes later he was joined on the surface by Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin.


Armstrong and Aldrin became the first members of the world's most exclusive club.  They were the first of only twelve men to ever set foot on the moon - the last was in 1972.

Landing astronauts on the moon inspired a generation of scientists and ordinary people to dream that anything was possible.  In 2004, the United States announced its intent to return astronauts to the moon by 2020.  Funding for this program was cancelled in the 2010 federal budget to the dismay of many including Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin.  Today the dream of a child to become an astronaut and walk on the moon is only a dream.

Neil Armstrong died in 2012.

Friday, July 18, 2014

I wonder if John Deere makes a turtle baler?

Did you know a group of turtles is called a "bale"?  I just looked it up.  I have heard of bales of hay, straw,  cotton, wool, tobacco, even paper, but I never knew about bales of turtles until now.

Yesterday I saw this group of three Spiny Softshell Turtles (Apalone spinifera) sunning themselves along the Chippewa River.  Unlike Michigan's other turtle species, Spiny Softshell Turtles have a flexible rubbery shell instead of one composed of hard plates (scutes).  Because this is the most Softshell Turtles I have ever seen in one place at one time, I thought I would share the photo.

Three Spiny Softshell Turtles (Apalone spinifera)

Thursday, July 17, 2014

Sticky Sticky Pollen

The bee in the photo below has something stuck to its feet.  What is it?

Honeybee with milkweed pollinia stuck to its legs.

Those orange "blobs" are called pollinia.  Unlike most flowers that disperse their pollen as individual grains, Milkweed plants concentrate their pollen grains into two connected sacs (or pollinia).  When a pollinating insect lands on a Milkweed flower this sticky pair of pollinia (the whole structure is called a pollinarium) can easily become attached to the insects legs.  As the insect moves from one flower to another the poliinarium can become dislodged and pollinates the flower where it is left.

Wednesday, July 16, 2014

Native Pollinator Garden Updates - 16 July 2014

I have written often in the past about the Native Pollinator gardens that we have installed at four local sites (three schools and a museum).  Over the past couple of days I have been busy adding some features to three of the gardens.

Saginaw Chippewa Academy Native Pollinator Garden

The garden at the Saginaw Chippewa Academy is the oldest garden of the four.  It was planted in 2011 and is now in its 4th summer of growth.  This garden is already registered through Monarch Watch as a Monarch Waystation #5092

In the past year another garden recognition program has also become available through an organization called Wild Ones.  Wild Ones is a national organization that promotes landscape health and biodiversity through the preservation, restoration, and establishment of native plant communities.  Their new program aims to recognize gardens/habitats that provide nectar sources and host plants for native butterfly species (especially Monarchs).  As a member of Wild Ones I am able to certify our gardens through this program.  Last week I received the following letter stating that the Saginaw Chippewa Academy Native Pollinator Garden was only the twenty-seventh garden in the country to be certified through this program!

Letter certifying the Saginaw Chippewa Academy Native Pollinator Garden as a Native Plant Butterfly Garden

In addition to the letter, I also received a metal sign to display in the garden.  Yesterday, I placed the sign in the garden alongside the Monarch Waystation sign.

New Native Plant Butterfly Garden sign displayed with Monarch Waystation sign

In addition to installing the new sign, I completed several more projects in the garden.  The garden needed a little bit of weeding.  Several self-seeded plants needed to be moved out of the pathway through the garden.  The tree rounds marking the pathway needed to be moved in one area.  Finally I installed a nesting box for native leafcutter and mason bees

This nesting site was made out of a 4 x 6 timber with holes cut through it with a hole saw.  Pieces of PVC pipe were inserted through the holes.  The rear of the pipes were capped and the front was cut at an angle to provide an overhang.  I filled the pipes with commercially available cardboard tubes that are designed for nesting bees, but you can also use pieces of bamboo, hollow stems from your garden, or branches with holes drilled in them.

Nesting site for native bees

A side view of the nesting box/post showing the angles front and capped back of the PVC pipes

A closer view of the nesting boxes

Nesting box for native bees filled with cardboard tubes

Here are a few more pictures of the SCA Native Pollinator Garden.

SCA Native Pollinator Garden - mass of flowers to the left are Bee Balm

Spiderwort, Butterflyweed, and Common Milkweed

Several plants were moved and this pathway straightened out

Cup Plant

Common Milkweed

Hoary Vervain

Rattlesnake Master

Mt. Pleasant Discovery Museum Native Pollinator Garden

Several weeks ago, I registered the Mt. Pleasant Discovery Museum Native Pollinator Garden as Monarch Waystation #8536.  This Waystation is so new that it still is not listed on the Waystation Registry.  I put the Waystation sign last week and yesterday I added a native bee nesting box (just like the one at the Saginaw Chippewa Academy.  This a very young garden.  It was planted last year at the end of June during a very dry period.  Although it may not look like much to most people, I am very happy with how this garden is progressing.

The Monarch Waystation sign greets visitors at the entry portico

Bee nest box at the Mt. Pleasant Discovery Museum

A view of the MPDM Native Pollinator Garden - bee nest box in foreground, Waystation sign can be seen on porch beam

Winn Elementary Native Pollinator Garden

The final garden that I visited over the past two days was the one at Winn Elementary.  This garden is now in its 3rd summer of growth - it was planted in 2012.  The school previously registered this garden as Monarch Waystation #6704.  Despite having the sign for some time, it was not displayed in the garden.  Earlier this summer I got the sign from the school office with the intent of putting it up in the garden.  Yesterday I finally got around to doing it.

In addition to the Monarch Waystation sign, I also installed a sign recognizing this garden as a Native Plant Wildlife Garden.  The letter from Wild Ones indicates that this is the 28th garden/habitat to receive this certification.


Here are a couple of photos of the newly installed signs.



I also did a little weeding, raked around the mulch where it had been moved by the recent (heavy) rains and installed one of the bee nest boxes.  Here are a few more pictures of what this garden looks like as of this week.

Horsemint (right) and Butterflyweed (left)

Bee nest box - yellow flowers in foreground are Lance-leaf Coreopsis, the ones in the background are Western Sunflower

Western Sunflower

Red Baneberry

The curved front of the garden

The north end of the garden showing the bee nesting box - the paving stones were made by students

A birdbath made by students and parents

Butterflyweed

Tuesday, July 15, 2014

Wildflower of 2014 - The Complete List (As of 14 July 2014)



Earlier this Spring, I started making a list of (and photographing)  all the wildflowers I could find in one growing season.  Here are the rules that I gave myself for this self-imposed challenge.

  •  Any native or non-native plant (including trees) can be photographed if it meets two conditions
    • It must be growing in a wild population - it cannot be in a location where it was planted.
    • It must be growing in one of the parks or other city properties within the city of Mt. Pleasant, Michigan.
  • I have to photograph the plant on the day I first find the flower - but I can photograph any flower of the species that I find on that day.
  • I have to be able to identify the species for it to count - unknown specimens do not count.
Here is my complete list as of 14 July 2014.  So far I have found 181 total species, of which 119 (65.7%) have been native and 62 species (34.3%) have been introduced to Michigan. 



Thursday 10 April 2014
     #1  Skunk Cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus)

 Monday 14 April 2014
     #2  Yellow Birch (Betula alleghaniensis)
     #3  Pussy Willow (Salix discolor)

Wednesday 16 April 2014
     #4  Quaking Aspen (Populus tremuloides)

Monday 21 April 2014
     #5  Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis)
     #6  Dutchman's Breeches (Dicentra cucullaria)
     #7  Common Blue Violet (Viola sororia)

Tuesday 22 April 2014
     #8  Red Maple (Acer rubrum)
     #9  Speckled Alder (Alnus rugosa)

Thursday 24 April 2014
     #10  Spring Beauty (Claytonia virginica)

Tuesday 29 April 2014
     #11  Boxelder (Acer negundo)
     #12  Cut-leaved Toothwort (Cardamine concatenata)
     #13  Marsh Marigold (Caltha palustris)
     #14  Yellow Trout Lily (Erythronium americanum)

Thursday 01 May 2014
     #15  Field Penny-cress (Thlaspi arvense)     NON-NATIVE
     #16  Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum)
     #17  Wild Ginger (Asarum canadense)
     #18  Common Dandelion (Taraxacum officianale)     NON-NATIVE

Monday 05 May 2014
     #19  Large-flowered Trillium (Trillium grandiflorum)
     #20  Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides)
     #21  Squirrel Corn (Dicentra canadensis)

Tuesday 06 May 2014
     #22  False Rue Anemone (Enemion biternatum)
     #23  White Trout Lily (Erythronium albidinum)

 Sunday 11 May 2014
     #24  Wood Anemone (Anemone quinquefolia)
     #25  Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum)
     #26  Spring Cress (Cardamine bulbosa)
     #27  American Dog Violet (Viola labradorica)
     #28  Swamp Buttercup (Ranunculus hispidus)
     #29  Downy Yellow Violet (Viola pubescens)
     #30  Two-leaf Mitrewort (Mitella diphylla)
     #31  Mouse-ear Chickweed (Cerastium fontanum)     NON-NATIVE
     #32  Woodland Strawberry (Fragaria vesca)
     #33  Garlic Mustard (Alliara petiolata)     NON-NATIVE (INVASIVE)

Tuesday 13 May 2014
     #34 Broad-leaved Toothwort (Cardamine diphylla)
     #35 Downy Serviceberry (Amelanchier arborea)
     #36 American Black Currant (Ribes americanum)
     #37 Shepherd's Purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris)     NON-NATIVE
     #38 Mouse-ear Cress (Arabidopsis thaliana)     NON-NATIVE
     #39 Common Winter-cress (Barbarea vulgaris)     NON-NATIVE
     #40 Hoary Alyssum (Berteroa incana)     NON-NATIVE
     #41 Field Peppergrass (Lepidium campestre)     NON-NATIVE
     #42 Creamy Violet (Viola striata)


 Sunday 18 May 2014
     #43 Wild Geranium (Geranium maculatum)
     #44 Star-flowered False Solomon's Seal (Maianthenum stellatum)
     #45 Common Periwinkle (Vinca minor)      NON-NATIVE (INVASIVE)

Tuesday 20 May 2014
     #46 Common Yellow Wood-sorrel (Oxalis stricta)
     #47 Wild Strawberry (Fragaria virginiana)
     #48 Nodding Trillium (Trillium cernuum)
     #49 Early Meadow-rue (Thalictrum dioicum)
     #50 Wild Blue Phlox (Phlox divaricata)
     #51 Small-flowered Buttercup (Ranunculus arbortivus)
     #52 Downy Solomon's Seal (Polygonatum pubescens)
     #53 Small Pussytoes (Antennaria howellii)
     #54 American Mountain Ash (Sorbus americana)
     #55 Purple Dead-nettle (Lamium purpureum)     NON-NATIVE     

Wednesday 21 May 2014
     #56 Horse-gentian (Triosteum aurantiacum)
     #57 Lily-of-the-valley (Convallaria majalis)     NON-NATIVE (INVASIVE)
     #58 Choke Cherry (Prunus virginiana)
     #59 Redbud (Cercis canadensis)
     #60 Morrow's Honeysuckle (Lonicera morrowii)     NON-NATIVE (INVASIVE)
     #61 White Oak (Quercus alba)
     #62 Bur Oak (Quercus macrocarpa)    

Friday 23 May 2014
     #63 Thyme-leaved Speedwell (Veronica serpyllifolia)     NON-NATIVE
     #64 American Bladdernut (Staphylea trifolia)

Monday 26 May 2014

     #65 Tartarian Honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica)     NON-NATIVE (INVASIVE)
     #66 Common Apple (Malus pumila)    NON-NATIVE
     #67 Wild Columbine (Aquilegia canadensis)
     #68 Red Baneberry (Actaea rubra)
     #69 Cleavers (Galium aparine)
     #70 Mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum)
     #71 Foamflower (Tiarella cordifolia)
     #72 Pennsylvania Bitter Cress (Cardamine pensylvanica)
     #73 White Baneberry (Actaea pachypoda)
     #74 Canada Mayflower (Maianthemum canadense)
     #75 Red Oak (Quercus rubra)

Monday 26 May 2014 (Part 2)
     #76 Wayfaring Tree (Viburnum lantana)     NON-NATIVE
     #77 Dame's Rocket (Hesperis matronalis)     NON-NATIVE (INVASIVE)
     #78 Upright Carrion-flower (Smilax ecirrata)
     #79 Pawpaw (Asimina triloba)
     #80 Red-osier Dogwood (Cornus sericea)
     #81 White Campion (Silene latifolia)     NON-NATIVE
     #82 Canada Anemone (Anemone canadensis)
          
Thursday 29 May 2014
     #83 Feathery False Solomon's Seal (Mainthemum racemosum)
     #84 Indian Strawberry (Potentilla indica)     NON-NATIVE
     #85 Common Fleabane (Erigeron philadelphicus)
     #86 Wild Black Cherry (Prunus serotina)
     #87 Black Medick (Medicago lupulina)     NON-NATIVE

Sunday 01 June 2014
     #88 Fistulous Goat's Beard (Tragopogon dubius)     NON-NATIVE
     #89 Garden Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis)     NON-NATIVE
     #90 Autumn Olive (Elaeagnus umbellata)     NON-NATIVE (INVASIVE)
     #91 Golden Ragwort (Packera aurea)
     #92 Nannyberry (Viburnum lentago)
     #93 Forget-me-not (Myosotis scorpioides)    NON-NATIVE (INVASIVE)
     #94 Southern Blue Flag Iris (Iris virginica)
     #95 White Clover (Trifolium repens)     NON-NATIVE
     #96 Black Raspberry (Rubus occidentalis)
     #97 Green Dragon (Arisaema dracontium)
     #98 Yellow Pond-lily (Nuphar variegata)

 Tuesday 03 June 2014
     #99 American Highbush Cranberry (Viburnum trilobum)
     #100 Common Buttercup (Ranunculus acris)     NON-NATIVE  

     #101 Winged Euonymus (Euonymus alatus)     NON-NATIVE
     #102 Amur maple (Acer ginnala)     NON-NATIVE
     #103 Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)    NON-NATIVE (INVASIVE)
     #104 Oriental Poppy (Papaver orientale)     NON-NATIVE
     #105 Red Clover (Trifolium pratense)     NON-NATIVE
   
     #106 Bittersweet Nightshade  (Solanum dulcamara)     NON-NATIVE
    
     #107 Riverbank Grape (Vitis riparia)
     #108 Silky Dogwood (Cornus amonum)
     #109 Carpet Bugle (Ajuga reptans)     NON-NATIVE

     #110 Common Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) 
     #111 Honewort (Cryptotaenia canadensis)
     #112 Northern Blue Flag Iris (Iris versicolor)
     #113 Running Strawberry Bush (Euonymus obovatus)
     #114 Common Black Snakeroot (Sanicula odorata)
     #115 Virginia Waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum)
     #116 Hairy Vetch (Vicia cracca)     NON-NATIVE
     #117 Ox-eye Daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare)     NON-NATIVE
     #118 English Plantain (Plantago lanceolata)     NON-NATIVE
     #119 Mossy Stonecrop (Sedum acre)     NON-NATIVE

     #120 Birdfoot Trefoil (Lotus corniculatus)     NON-NATIVE
     #121 Yellow Sweet Clover (Melilotus officinalis)     NON-NATIVE
     #122 King Devil (Hieracium piloselloides)     NON-NATIVE
     #123 Clammy Ground-cherry (Physalis heterophylla)
     #124 Giant Bur-reed (Sparganium eurycarpum)

     #125 White Water Lily (Nymphaea odorata)
     #126 Purple Meadow Rue (Thalictrum dasycarpum)

     #127 Alfalfa (Medicago sativa)     NON-NATIVE
     #128 Silvery Cinquefoil (Potentilla argentea)     NON-NATIVE
     #129 Multiflora Rose (Rosa multiflora)     NON-NATIVE (INVASIVE)
    #130 Bitter Dock (Rumex obstusifolius)     NON-NATIVE
    #131 Common Goat's Beard (Tragopogon pratensis)     NON-NATIVE

     #132 Wild Garlic (Allium canadense)
     #133 Moonseed (Menispermum canadense)
     #134 Narrow-leafed Cattail (Typha angustifolia)      NON-NATIVE in Michigan
     #135 Cow Parsnip (Heracleum maximum)    
     #136 Everlasting Pea (Lathyrus latifolius)     NON-NATIVE
     #137 Cursed Crowfoot (Ranunculus scleratus
     #138 Rough-fruited Cinquefoil (Potentilla recta)     NON-NATIVE
     #139 Crown-vetch (Securigera varia)     NON-NATIVE
   
     #140 White Avens (Geum canadense)
     #141 Wild Rose (Rosa blanda)
     #142 Northern Bush-honeysuckle (Diervilla lonicera)
     #143 Gray Dogwood (Cornus foemina)
     #144 Eastern Poison Ivy (Toxicodendron radicans)
     #145 Common Cattail (Typha latifolia)
     #146 Hedge Bindweed (Calystegia sepium)
     #147 Motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca)
     #148 Common Enchanter's-nightshade (Circaea canadensis)
     #149 Field Bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis)
     #150 Canada Thistle (Cirsium arvense)     NON-NATIVE

     #151 Staghorn Sumac (Rhus typhina)
     #152 Border Privet (Ligustrum obtusifolium)     NON-NATIVE
   
     #153 Large-leaved Shinleaf (Pyrola elliptica)
     #154 Common St. John's-wort (Hypericum perfoliatum)
     #155 White Sweet Clover (Melilotus albus)     NON-NATIVE
     #156 Common Milkweed (Asclepias syriaca)
     #157 Pasture Rose (Rosa carolina)

     #158 Creeping Buttercup (Ranunculus repens)
     #159 Common Elder (Sambucus canadensis)
     #160 Moth Mullein (Verbascum blattaria)     NON-NATIVE
     #161 Chicory (Cichorium intybus)     NON-NATIVE

     #162 Water Hemlock (Cicuta maculata)
     #163 Michigan Lily (Lilium michiganense)

     #164 Wood Nettle (Laportea canadensis)
     #165 Fringed Loosestrife (Lysimachia ciliata)
     #166 Tall Agrimony (Agrimonia gryposepala)
     #167 American Lopseed (Phryma leptostachya)

     #168 Deptford Pink (Dianthus armeria)     NON-NATIVE
     #169 Common Mullein (Verbascum thaspus)     NON-NATIVE
     #170 Spreading Dogbane (Apocynum androsaemifolium)
     #171 Wild Carrot (Daucus carota)     NON-NATIVE

     #172 Blue Vervain (Verbena hastata)
     #173 Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)     NON-NATIVE
     #174 Wild Mint (Mentha canadensis)

     #175 White Vervain (Verbena urticifolia)
     #176 Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica)
     #177 Bouncing Bet (Saponaria officinalis)     NON-NATIVE
     #178 Bull Thistle (Cirsium vulgare)     NON-NATIVE
     #179 Catnip (Nepeta cataria)     NON-NATIVE
     #180 Swamp Milkweed (Asclepias incarnata)
     #181 Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata)